Social Science Chapter Summary | Working of Institutions (Civics)


Social Science Chapter Summary

Working of Institutions | (Civics)


Parliament is a set of people elected regularly by the people of the country, directly (through direct elections) or Indirectly (through indirect election). All the by the government, before implementation, are put in the Parliament for discussion. Decisions can be implemented only after the approval by the Parliament.

Need of Parliament :

We need Parliament due to the following reasons :

Social Science Chapter Summary
     Social Science Chapter Summary
  1. Parliament is the final authority for making new laws and changing existing laws in our country.
  2. In India, the control of Parliament over the government is direct and full. Those who run the government can take decisions only as long as they enjoy the support of the Parliament
  3. Parliament controls all the money that the government has. In most countries, public money can be spent only when Parliament sanctions it.
  4. Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in my country. Parliament can seek information about any matter.


Two Houses of Parliament

  • Lok Sabha (House of the People) or Lower Chamber : It is Usually directly elected by the people and exercises the real power on behalf of the people.
  • Rajya Sabha (Council of States) or Upper Chamber : It is indirectly elected and performs special functions such as interest of various states, regions or federal units.

Prime Minister

Social Science Chapter Summary

The Prime Minister is the head of the government and actually exercises all the government powers. He is the most important political institution in the country.

Appointment of Prime Minister

There is no direct election to the post of the Prime Minister. The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha as a Prime Minister.

In case, no single party gets a majority, the President appoints the person most likely to secure majority support.



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