How do genes control the traits ?


How do genes control the traits ? 

Let’s discuss over it..

A gene is the section of DNA on a chromosome which codes for the formation of a protein controlling a specific characteristic (or trait) of the organism.

1.1  Case – Plant :

Genes & Chromosomes

Suppose a plant progeny has gene for the characteristic called ‘tallness’. Now, the gene for tallness will give instructions to the plant cells to make a lot of plant growth hormones. And due to the formation of excess of plant growth hormones, the plant will grow too much and hence become tall. On the other hand, if the plant has the gene set for dwarfness, then less plant growth hormones will be produced due to which the plant will grow less, remain short and hence become a dwarf plant.

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1.2  Case – Human being :

Chromosomes and Genes

The transmission of colour of hair from the parents (father and mother) to the child. The black hair is a phenotype produced by the genotype HH or Hh. On the other hand, blonde hair (pale yellow hair) is a phenotype produced by the genotype hh.


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Mother’s cell contain two genes HH for black hair. Both the genes HH are dominant genes, so the mother has black hair. Father’s cells contain two genes (hh) for blonde hair. The two genes hh are recessive genes, so the father has blonde hair (or pale yellow hair). Now, during the process of reproduction, the mother transmits one of the dominant genes H for black hair to the child and the father transmits one of his recessive genes h for blonde hair to the child. Due to this, the child has the genes Hh for her hair. Now, the gene H for black hair is the dominant gene but the gene h for blonde hair is the recessive gene. The dominant gene H for black hair shows its effect due to which the child has black hair.


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